The present selective review addresses attention, inhibition, and their underlying brain mechanisms, especially in relation to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD), and the effects of methylphenidate. In particular, event-related potential (ERP) studies suggest a deficit in the early-filtering aspect of selective attention in children with AD/HD. Results from stop tasks are consistent with impairments in stopping performance in AD/HD, but in children (as opposed to adults) these effects cannot be easily dissociated from more general impairments in attention to the task, and therefore an interpretation in terms of inhibitory control is not straightforward. On the other hand, the beneficial effects of methylphenidate are more specific to stopping, and there are no clearcut effects of methylphenidate on measures of selective attention. Even when group differences pertain specifically to stopping performance (as with adults with AD/HD), ERP evidence suggests at least a partial contribution of differences in switching attention to the stop signal, as revealed in measures of sensory cortex activation. ERP evidence from cued go/nogo tasks underlines the importance of taking into account the contribution of higher order control processes involved in anticipation of and preparation for task stimuli. It suggests that in certain conditions, expectancy, rather than response bias, contributes to increased behavioral response tendencies, and that a presumed index of response inhibition, the nogo N2, may rather reflect conflict monitoring. In sum, direct reflections of brain activity suggest that mechanisms of expectation and attention, rather than of response bias or inhibitory control, govern behavioral manifestations of impulsivity.
Kenemans, J. L., Bekker, E. M., Lijffijt, M., Overtoom, C. C., Jonkman, L. M., & Verbaten, M. N. (2005). Attention deficit and impulsivity: selecting, shifting, and stopping. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 58(1), 59-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.03.009