This study focused on the association of polymorphisms of the FADS2 gene with fatty acid profiles in egg yolk of eight Japanese quail lines selected for high and low omega-6:omega-3 PUFA ratio (h2 = 0.36-0.38). For the identification of polymorphisms within the FADS2 gene 1350 bp of cDNA sequence were obtained encoding 404 amino acids. Five synonymous SNPs were found by comparative sequencing of animals of the high and low lines. These SNPs were genotyped by single base extension on 160 Japanese quail. The association analysis, comprising analysis of variance and family based association test (FBAT), revealed significant effects of SNP3 and SNP4 genotypes on the egg yolk fatty acid profiles, especially the omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs (P < 0.05). No effects of the other SNPs were found - indicating that these are not in linkage disequilibrium with the causal polymorphism. The results of this study promote FADS2 as a functional candidate gene for traits related to omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA concentration in the egg yolk.