Association of Apolipoprotein E With Intracerebral Hemorrhage Risk by Race/Ethnicity A Meta-analysis

Sandro Marini, Katherine Crawford, Andrea Morotti, Myung J. Lee, Alessandro Pezzini, Charles J. Moomaw, Matthew L. Flaherty, Joan Montaner, Jaume Roquer, Jordi Jimenez-Conde, Eva Giralt-Steinhauer, Roberto Elosua, Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Carolina Soriano-Tarraga, Agnieszka Slowik, Jeremiasz M. Jagiella, Joanna Pera, Andrzej Urbanik, Alexander Pichler, Bjorn M. HansenJacob L. McCauley, David L. Tirschwell, Magdy Selim, Devin L. Brown, Scott L. Silliman, Bradford B. Worrall, James F. Meschia, Chelsea S. Kidwell, Fernando D. Testai, Steven J. Kittner, Helena Schmidt, Christian Enzinger, Lan J. Deary, Kristiina Rannikmae, Neshika Samarasekera, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Catherine L. Sudlow, Catharina J. M. Klijn, Koen M. van Nieuwenhuizen, Israel Fernandez-Cadenas, Pilar Delgado, Bo Nonving, Ame Lindgren, Joshua N. Goldstein, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M. Greenberg, Guido J. Falcone, Alessandro Biffi, Carl D. Langefeld, Julie Staals, International Stroke Genetics Consortium, Christopher D. Anderson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

31 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

IMPORTANCE Genetic studies of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have focused mainly on white participants, but genetic risk may vary or could be concealed by differing nongenetic coexposures in nonwhite populations. Transethnic analysis of risk may clarify the role of genetics in ICH risk across populations.

OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations between established differences in ICH risk by race/ethnicity and the variability in the risks of apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 alleles, the most potent genetic risk factor for ICH.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This case-control study of primary ICH meta-analyzed the association of APOE allele status on ICH risk, applying a 2-stage clustering approach based on race/ethnicity and stratified by a contributing study. A propensity score analysis was used to model the association of APOE with the burden of hypertension across race/ethnic groups. Primary ICH cases and controls were collected from 3 hospital- and population-based studies in the United States and 8 in European sites in the International Stroke Genetic Consortium. Participants were enrolled from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2017. Participants with secondary causes of ICH were excluded from enrollment. Controls were regionally matched within each participating study.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Clinical variables were systematically obtained from structured interviews within each site. APOE genotype was centrally determined for all studies.

RESULTS In total, 13 124 participants (7153 [54.5%] male with a median [interquartile range] age of 66 [56-76] years) were included. In white participants, APOE epsilon 2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.24-1.80; P <.001) and APOE epsilon 4 (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.23-1.85; P <.001) were associated with lobar ICH risk; however, within self-identified Hispanic and black participants, no associations were found. After propensity score matching for hypertension burden, APOE epsilon 4 was associated with lobar ICH risk among Hispanic (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28; P = .01) but not in black (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.98-1.07; P = .25) participants. APOE epsilon 2 and epsilon 4 did not show an association with nonlobar ICH risk in any race/ethnicity.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE APOE epsilon 4 and epsilon 2 alleles appear to affect lobar ICH risk variably by race/ethnicity, associations that are confirmed in white individuals but can be shown in Hispanic individuals only when the excess burden of hypertension is propensity score-matched; further studies are needed to explore the interactions between APOE alleles and environmental exposures that vary by race/ethnicity in representative populations at risk for ICH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)480-491
Number of pages12
JournalJAMA Neurology
Volume76
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019

Keywords

  • COA REDUCTASE INHIBITORS
  • ALZHEIMER-DISEASE
  • E GENOTYPE
  • GENETIC-VARIATION
  • APOE EPSILON-4
  • LOBAR
  • BLACKS
  • WHITES
  • ETHNICITY
  • ALLELE

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