Association Between Later Life Lifestyle Factors and Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers in Non-Demented Individuals: A Longitudinal Descriptive Cohort Study

Babette L. R. Reijs*, Stephanie J. B. Vos, Hilkka Soininen, Jyrki Lotjonen, Juha Koikkalainen, Maria Pikkarainen, Anette Hall, Ritva Vanninen, Yawu Liu, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Yvonne Freund-Levi, Giovanni B. Frisoni, Lutz Frolich, Flavio Nobilij, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Luiza Spiru, Magda Tsolaki, Asa K. Wallinn, Philip Scheltens, Frans VerheyPieter Jelle Visser*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Background: Lifestyle factors have been associated with the risk of dementia, but the association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear.

Objective: To examine the association between later life lifestyle factors and AD biomarkers (i.e., amyloid-beta 1-42 (A beta(42)) and tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and hippocampal volume) in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, to examine the effect of later life lifestyle factors on developing AD-type dementia in individuals with MCI.

Methods: We selected individuals with SCD (n = 111) and MCI (n = 353) from the DESCRIPA and Kuopio Longitudinal MCI studies. CSF A beta(42) and tau concentrations were assessed with ELISA assay and hippocampal volume with multi-atlas segmentation. Lifestyle was assessed by clinical interview at baseline for: social activity, physical activity, cognitive activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sleep. We performed logistic and Cox regression analyses adjusted for study site, age, gender, education, and diagnosis. Prediction for AD-type dementia was performed in individuals with MCI only.

Results: Later life lifestyle factors were not associated with AD biomarkers or with conversion to AD-type dementia. AD biomarkers were strongly associated with conversion to AD-type dementia, but these relations were not modulated by lifestyle factors. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype did not influence the results.

Conclusions: Later life lifestyle factors had no impact on key AD biomarkers in individuals with SCD and MCI or on conversion to AD-type dementia in MCI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1387-1395
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Alcohol consumption
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • amyloid-beta (1-42)
  • cerebrospinal fluid
  • cognitive reserve
  • exercise
  • hippocampus
  • lifestyle
  • mild cognitive impairment


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