Background: Bariatric surgery has a considerable effect on weight loss. A positive relation of exercise and weight loss has been described before. However, the mode of exercise and its timing pre-or postoperatively or a combination remains unclear. Methods: A multi-database search was conducted. Identified articles were reviewed on description of exercise, timing around a bariatric intervention, and outcome. Methodological quality of the included studies was rated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. A Cohen's kappa score assessed the level of agreement. Outcome measurements were improvement of anthropometric and physical fitness variables, operation related complications, weight regain, and quality of life. Results: A total of 8 prospective studies were included. Four focused on training before and 4 on training after a bariatric procedure. Details of exercises varied from 45 min treadmill up to full descriptive programs. Supervision was frequently included. Significant improvement was encountered for biometric results physical fitness variables. Conclusion: In the majority of reports on exercising in a (future) bariatric population, positive effects on anthropometrics, cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness were described. However, the results were not unanimous, with a wide range of exercise programs and perioperative timing, therefore hampering adequate practical guidance.