Antipsychotic Exposure in Pregnancy and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Suat Kucukgoncu*, Sinan Guloksuz, Kubra Celik, Mert Ozan Bahtiyar, Jurjen J. Luykx, Bart P. F. Rutten, Cenk Tek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review


Background: We have limited knowledge about the effects of antipsychotic exposure on the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Aim of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess GDM risk associated with antipsychotic exposure in pregnancy. Methods: Systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science databases up to August 22, 2018. No restrictions to language or date were applied. Randomized, controlled trials, case-control, or cohort studies reporting GDM risk in antipsychotic-exposed, healthy controls or antipsychotic-ceased patients were included in the meta-analysis. The primary outcomes were study defined GDM, including number of events, odds ratios, and/or risk ratios (RR) with confidence intervals (CI). Results: Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. The total number of subjects was 6213 for the antipsychotic-exposed group, 6836 for antipsychotic-ceased control group, and 1 677 087 for the healthy control group. Compared with the healthy controls, the unadjusted cumulative RR for GDM associated with antipsychotic use was 1.63 (95% CI = 1.20-2.22). Adjusted risk for GDM was significantly higher in antipsychotic exposure group than in healthy controls (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.023-1.660). The adjusted RR for GDM was similar between the antipsychotic-exposed group and the antipsychotic-ceased group (RR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.281-2.164). No significant association was found between study quality, smoking, alcohol use, gestational age, and cumulative GDM risk. Discussion: Our results indicate an increased risk of GDM with antipsychotic exposure in pregnant women, who may benefit from close pregnancy monitoring, early testing for GDM, targeting modifiable risk factors, and lifestyle modifications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)311-318
Number of pages8
JournalSchizophrenia Bulletin
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


  • antipsychotic
  • gestational diabetes
  • pregnancy

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