Objective: To assess whether serum anti-heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) antibody levels are associated with micro- and macrovascular complications of type 1 diabetes. Research Design and Methods: Anti-HSP27 IgG antibody levels were measured in 531 type 1 diabetic subjects recruited as part of the cross-sectional analysis of the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Case subjects (n=363) were defined as those with one or more diabetic complications and control subjects (n=168) as those with no evidence of any diabetic complication. Results: Anti-HSP27 levels were comparable in cases and control subjects [19.6 AU/ml (11.3-32.7) vs. 20.4 AU/ml (11.7-35.3), geometric mean, (interquartile range)] and there was no correlation between HSP27 and anti-HSP27 levels (r=0.01, p=0.81). In logistic regression analysis anti-HSP27 was not associated with the presence of complications, even after adjustment for main risk factors. Conclusions: Anti-HSP27 antibody levels are not a marker of vascular complications in type 1 diabetes.