Although obesity is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer, evidence linking risk to height, weight change since age 20, and physical activity is limited. In this case-cohort study, 62 573 women from The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer were followed up from 1986 to 1995, and 226 endometrial cancer case patients were identified. In Cox proportional hazards analyses, women 175 cm or taller had an increased risk of endometrial cancer compared with those less than 160 cm (rate ratio [RR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32 to 4.99). Compared with women with a body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) between 20 and 22.9, women with a BMI of 30 or greater had a higher risk (RR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.62 to 7.72; P(trend)<.001). Moreover, BMI at age 20 and BMI gain since age 20 were positively associated with endometrial cancer risk (P(trend) = .02 and <.001, respectively). Women who spent 90 minutes per day or more doing nonoccupational physical activities had a lower risk (RR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.85; P(trend) = .002) compared with those who spent less than 30 minutes per day. High BMI and low physical activity were strong and independent risk factors for endometrial cancer.