OBJECTIVE: Myopic patients have an increased risk for the development of a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Currently, myopic patients have the choice to undergo correction of their refractive error by the implantation of a phakic intraocular lens (pIOL). After pIOL implantation, progressive endothelial cell loss may result if the anterior chamber is too shallow. Because scleral buckling (SB) surgery for treatment of an RRD may in itself result in a decreased anterior chamber depth (ACD), this may become an important issue not only for the retinal surgeon who is faced with a patient who has both an RRD and a pIOL, but also for the refractive surgeon who should consider the potential problems of the implantation of pIOL in an eye that has previously undergone SB surgery. The goal of this study was to evaluate how long changes in ACD persist after SB procedures in patients with RRD. DESIGN: Prospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-eight eyes with a primary RRD treated by SB using an encircling element and a radial or segmental buckle; 31 fellow eyes served as controls. METHODS: Anterior chamber depth (in the horizontal meridian) and axial length were measured preoperatively and at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively with an anterior optical coherence tomography method and an IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany), respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In all 38 eyes, ACD was significantly reduced compared with preoperative levels up to 9 months after SB surgery. RESULTS: Anterior chamber depth returned to normal at 1 year after surgery. Axial length was significantly enlarged during the whole follow-up period. No significant differences were found between the use of radial or segmental buckles. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior chamber depth may remain decreased after SB for a longer time period than previously reported. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.