Alzheimer's disease, characterized by brain deposits of amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, is also linked to neurovascular dysfunction and blood-brain barrier breakdown, affecting the passage of substances into and out of the brain. We hypothesized that treatment of neurovascular alterations could be beneficial in Alzheimer's disease. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a mediator of glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory action that can suppress microglial activation and reduce blood-brain barrier leakage. We have reported recently that treatment with recombinant human ANXA1 (hrANXA1) reduced amyloid-beta levels by increased degradation in neuroblastoma cells and phagocytosis by microglia. Here, we show the beneficial effects of hrANXA1 in vivo by restoring efficient blood-brain barrier function and decreasing amyloid-beta and tau pathology in 5xFAD mice and Tau-P301L mice. We demonstrate that young 5xFAD mice already suffer cerebrovascular damage, while acute pre-administration of hrANXA1 rescued the vascular defects. Interestingly, the ameliorated blood-brain barrier permeability in young 5xFAD mice by hrANXA1 correlated with reduced brain amyloid-beta load, due to increased clearance and degradation of amyloid-beta by insulin degrading enzyme (IDE). The systemic anti-inflammatory properties of hrANXA1 were also observed in 5xFAD mice, increasing IL-10 and reducing TNF-alpha expression. Additionally, the prolonged treatment with hrANXA1 reduced the memory deficits and increased synaptic density in young 5xFAD mice. Similarly, in Tau-P301L mice, acute hrANXA1 administration restored vascular architecture integrity, affecting the distribution of tight junctions, and reduced tau phosphorylation. The combined data support the hypothesis that blood-brain barrier breakdown early in Alzheimer's disease can be restored by hrANXA1 as a potential therapeutic approach.
|Number of pages||16|
|Publication status||Published - 1 May 2021|
- A beta
- NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS
- TRANSGENIC MICE
- MOUSE MODEL
- PRECURSOR PROTEIN