The aim of this study was to validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in food items and to analyze AGEs in a selection of food items commonly consumed in a Western diet. N-epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), N-epsilon-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and N-delta-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-omithine (MG-H1) were quantified in the protein fractions of 190 food items using UPLC-MS/MS. Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were 2-29%. The calibration curves showed perfect linearity in water and food matrices. We found the highest AGE levels in high-heat processed nut or grain products, and canned meats. Fruits, vegetables, butter and coffee had the lowest AGE content. The described method proved to be suitable for the quantification of three major AGEs in food items. The presented dietary AGE database opens the possibility to further quantify actual dietary exposure to AGEs and to explore its physiological impact on human health.
- Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs)
- Maillard reaction
- Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)
- Method validation
- Dietary database