An intervention development for cessation of hookah smoking among Iranian women: study protocol for a systematic and theory-based approach to intervention design

Sakineh Dadipoor, Gerjo Kok, Ali Heyrani, Teamur Aghamolaei*, Mohtasham Ghaffari, Amin Ghanbarnezhad

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Web of Science)


BACKGROUND: Hookah smoking is an emerging global health issue, especially in Eastern Mediterranean region; and accordingly, women are at the center of this issue as they have a more positive attitude towards hookah smoking. Also, the rate of hookah smoking is increasing at a faster rate among women compared to men. The aim of the present study will be systematically designing and implementing an educational intervention program for hookah smoking cessation among 15 years old women and older in the Iranian southern city of Bandar Abbas.

METHODS: We will use intervention mapping methodology for designing the study. Due to the breadth of factors affecting hookah smoking and the complexity of hookah cessation, we will initially conceptualize hookah smoking cessation program as a set of purposeful activities designed to stop the hookah smoking. In the first step (need assessment), the environmental and behavioral factors related to hookah smoking/cessation and the determinants of these factors will be determined by systematic review and local qualitative study. Then, based on the results of the first step, the behavioral and environmental goals of hookah smoking cessation will be identified. In the second step, the practical goals will be determined for each of the behavioral and environmental outcomes; and then, the logic and matrix of change objectives will be designed using the determinants extracted from the previous step. The products of the second step will be the intervention goals. In the third step, theoretical and practical methods affecting each of the intervention goals will be identified. In the fourth step, contents of educational program for hookah cessation will be produced. The fifth step will be about planning to implement the program. In the sixth step, the effectiveness of designed program will be evaluated in a quasi-experimental intervention.

DISCUSSION: Appropriate development and successful implementation of a hookah cessation intervention requires a systematic and theory-based approach. We believe that using Intervention Mapping (IM) as the guiding methodology will make it possible to address complexities of developing an intervention program. Also, reflections on the quasi-experimental research and describing the context and executed methods of implementation would contribute to the development of IM and the knowledge needed for the implementation of program. Trial registration IRCT20190126042494N1, Registered 3.3.2019.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6
Number of pages10
JournalAddiction science & clinical practice
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 3 Feb 2020


  • Hookah
  • Intervention mapping
  • Quasi-experimental trial
  • Smoking
  • Women

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