Amoxicillin Modulates ApoA-I Transcription and Secretion, Predominantly via PPARα Transactivation Inhibition

Jehad Z. Tayyeb, Herman E. Popeijus*, Ronald P. Mensink, Maurice C. J. M. Konings, Kim H. R. Mulders, Jogchum Plat

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In a recent human study, we observed that amoxicillin treatment decreased HDL-C concentration. We hypothesize that antibiotics lower the transcription and secretion of ApoA-I, the responsible protein for HDL production. HepG2 and Caco-2 cells were exposed to increasing dose of amoxicillin, penicillin, and streptomycin. Secreted ApoA-I protein and mRNA transcripts were analyzed using ELISA and qPCR, respectively. To unravel underlying mechanisms, KEAP1, CPT1, and CHOP mRNA expressions were determined as well as PPAR alpha transactivation. In HepG2 and Caco-2, amoxicillin decreased ApoA-I transcription and secretion. Effects on ApoA-I expression were clearly there for amoxicillin while no effects were observed for penicillin or streptomycin. KEAP1, CPT1, and CHOP mRNA expressions were reduced by amoxicillin treatments. Moreover, a significant correlation between ApoA-I and CPT1 mRNA expressions was found. Furthermore, amoxicillin lowered PPAR alpha transactivation. All together, these data suggest that inhibited PPAR alpha transactivation is involved in the effects of amoxicillin on ApoA-I. In conclusion, the direct effect of amoxicillin in treated HepG2 and Caco-2 cells was a lower ApoA-I secretion and transcription. Based on evaluating alterations in KEAP1, CPT1, and CHOP mRNA expressions plus PPAR alpha transactivation, we suggest that a reduced PPAR alpha activation is a potential mechanism behind the observed amoxicillin effects on ApoA-I expression.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5967
Number of pages13
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019


  • HDL
  • apolipoproteins
  • PPARs
  • BET
  • ER stress
  • mRNA
  • gene expression

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