Alcohol intake, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes, and the risk of colorectal cancer by sex and subsite in the Netherlands Cohort Study

Nadine S. M. Offermans, Shannon M. Ketcham, Piet A. van den Brandt, Matty P. Weijenberg, Colinda C. J. M. Simons*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

The alcohol-colorectal cancer (CRC) association may differ by sex and ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes. ADH enzymes oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, both of which are human carcinogens. The Netherlands Cohort Study includes 120 852 participants, aged 55-69 years at baseline (1986), and has 20.3 years follow-up (case-cohort: n(subcohort) = 4774; n(cases) = 4597). The baseline questionnaire included questions on alcohol intake at baseline and 5 years before. Using toenail DNA, available for similar to 75% of the cohort, we successfully genotyped six ADH1B and six ADH1C SNPs (n(subcohort) = 3897; n(cases) = 3558). Sex-and subsite-specific Cox hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for CRC were estimated comparing alcohol categories, genotypes within drinkers and alcohol categories within genotype strata. We used a dominant genetic model and adjusted for multiple testing. Alcohol intake increased CRC risk in both sexes, though in women only in the (proximal) colon when in excess of 30 g/day. In male drinkers, ADH1B rs4147536 increased (distal) colon cancer risk. In female drinkers, ADH1C rs283415 increased proximal colon cancer risk. ADH1B rs3811802 and ADH1C rs4147542 decreased CRC risk in heavy (> 30 g/day) and stable drinkers (compared to 5 years before baseline), respectively. Rs3811802 and rs4147542 significantly modified the alcohol-colon cancer association in women (P-for interaction = 0.004 and 0.02, respectively). A difference in associations between genotype strata was generally clearer in men than women. In conclusion, men showed increased CRC risks across subsites and alcohol intake levels, while only colon cancer risk was increased in women at heavy intake levels. ADH1B rs3811802 and ADH1C rs4147542 significantly modified the alcohol-colon cancer association in women.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-388
Number of pages14
JournalCarcinogenesis
Volume39
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018

Keywords

  • ISLAND METHYLATOR PHENOTYPE
  • SCALE PROSPECTIVE COHORT
  • FALSE DISCOVERY RATE
  • HUMAN-LIVER ALCOHOL
  • MICROSATELLITE INSTABILITY
  • GENETIC ANALYSES
  • DNA METHYLATION
  • COLON-CANCER
  • DEHYDROGENASE
  • DIET

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