Goldman and Darkes (2004) argued that all three basic alcohol-expectancy factors can be assessed with a brief questionnaire (AEMax), related to the circumplex model of emotion. I argue that negative reinforcement, one of the three basic expectancy factors, is not assessed with the AEMax. Importantly, negative reinforcement is positively related to problem drinking while sedation (the AEMax-factor that comes closest) is not. In a new dataset (from 119 students, collected in 2002), I demonstrate that sedation is related to negative expectancies and not to negative reinforcement. Different ways to assess all major expectancy factors are proposed.
Wiers, R. W. H. J. (2008). Alcohol and drug expectancies as anticipated changes in affect: negative reinforcement is not sedation. Substance Use & Misuse, 43(3-4), 429-444. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826080701203021