Alcohol and drug expectancies as anticipated changes in affect: negative reinforcement is not sedation

R.W.H.J. Wiers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Goldman and Darkes (2004) argued that all three basic alcohol-expectancy factors can be assessed with a brief questionnaire (AEMax), related to the circumplex model of emotion. I argue that negative reinforcement, one of the three basic expectancy factors, is not assessed with the AEMax. Importantly, negative reinforcement is positively related to problem drinking while sedation (the AEMax-factor that comes closest) is not. In a new dataset (from 119 students, collected in 2002), I demonstrate that sedation is related to negative expectancies and not to negative reinforcement. Different ways to assess all major expectancy factors are proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)429-444
JournalSubstance Use & Misuse
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2008

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