Affective symptoms as predictors of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a 10-year follow-up study

I. H. G. B. Ramakers*, P. J. Visser, P. Aalten, A. Kester, J. Jolles, F. R. J. Verhey

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background. Affective symptoms are common in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but there is disagreement whether these symptoms are predictive for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the predictive accuracy of affective symptoms for AD during a follow-up study in subjects with MCI, and whether the predictive accuracy was modified by age, the presence of amnestic MCI or the length of follow-up. Method. Newly referred subjects (n = 263) with MCI older than 55 years were selected from a memory clinic and followed up after 2, 5 and 10 years. Predictors investigated were: symptoms of depression, anxiety, apathy and sleeping problems. Results. Affective symptoms were present in 50-70% of the subjects. The average follow-up period was 5.4 years and 79 subjects (29%) developed AD. Sleeping problems were associated with a decreased risk for AD [odds ratio (OR) 0.35, p
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1193-1201
JournalPsychological Medicine
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010


  • Affective symptoms
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • predictor

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