Sacral neuromodulation has been developed to treat chronic lower urinary tract symptoms, resistant to classical conservative therapy. The suspected mechanisms of action include afferent stimulation of the central nervous system and modulation of activity at the level of the brain. Typical neuromodulation is indicated both in overactivity and in underactivity of the lower urinary tract. In the majority of patients, a unilateral electrode in a sacral foramen and connected to a pulse generator is sufficient to achieve significant clinical results also on long term. In recent years, other urological indications have been explored.
- Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)
- Sacral neuromodulation
- Bladder pacemaker