Advances in the non-invasive assessment of vascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and diabetes: Focus on endothelium, carotid mechanics and renal vessels

R. M. Bruno, K. D. Reesink, L. Ghiadoni*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review

11 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Aim: The present paper is a selective review on the methodology and clinical significance of techniques to assess specifically endothelial function, carotid mechanics and renal vascular function, particularly in the light of vascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

Data synthesis: Endothelial dysfunction appears to be earlier detectable in the microcirculation of patients with altered glucose metabolism, while it attains significance in the macrocirculation at more advanced disease stages. Smooth muscle cell dysfunction is now increasingly recognized to play a role both in the development of endothelial dysfunction and abnormal arterial distensibility. Furthermore, impaired glucose metabolism affects carotid mechanics through medial calcification, structural changes in extracellular matrix due to advanced glycation and modification of the collagen/elastin material stiffness. The assessment of renal vascular function by dynamic ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging has recently emerged as an appealing target for identifying subtle vascular alterations responsible for the development of diabetic nephropathy.

Conclusions: Vascular dysfunction represents a major mechanism for the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism. Hence, the currently available non-invasive techniques to assess early structural and vascular abnormalities merit recommendation in this population, although their predictive value and sensitivity to monitor treatmentinduced changes have not yet been established and are still under investigation. (C) 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-128
Number of pages8
JournalNutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Volume27
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2017

Keywords

  • Endothelium
  • Flow mediated
  • dilation
  • Carotid artery
  • Biomechanics
  • Arterial stiffness
  • Wall stress
  • Nephropathy
  • Renal blood flow
  • FLOW-MEDIATED DILATION
  • GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE
  • SMOOTH-MUSCLE FUNCTION
  • CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE
  • ARTERIAL STIFFNESS
  • RESISTIVE INDEX
  • HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS
  • BLOOD-PRESSURE
  • CLINICAL-APPLICATIONS
  • INSULIN-RESISTANCE

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