Adrenal Tumors with Unexpected Outcome: A Review of the Literature

T.M. Kerkhofs, R.M. Roumen, T.B. Demeyere, A.N. van der Linden, H.R. Haak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The finding of an adrenal mass should induce a diagnostic work-up aimed at assessing autonomous hormone production and differentiating between benign and (potentially) malignant lesions. The common differential diagnosis in adrenal incidentaloma consists of (non-) functioning adenoma, pheochromocytoma, myelolipoma, metastasis, and primary carcinoma. There remains a category of lesions that are hormonally inactive and display nonspecific imaging characteristics. We provide a succinct literature review regarding pathologies from this category. Imaging and histological characteristics are discussed, as well as clinical management. In conclusion, an adrenal mass may present a diagnostic challenge. After exclusion of most common diagnoses, it can be difficult to differentiate between possible pathologies based on preoperative diagnostic tests. Surgical resection of possibly harmful tumors is indicated, for example, lesions with malignant potential or risk of spontaneous hemorrhage. Resection of an obviously benign lesion is not necessary, unless problems due to tumor size are expected.

Original languageEnglish
Article number710514
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Endocrinology
Volume2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015

Keywords

  • NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA
  • RETROPERITONEAL ANCIENT SCHWANNOMA
  • DEDIFFERENTIATED LIPOSARCOMA
  • EPITHELIOID ANGIOSARCOMA
  • PATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION
  • CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA
  • IMAGING FEATURES
  • CYSTIC LESIONS
  • INCIDENTALOMA
  • MANAGEMENT

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