Melt extrusion of thermoplastic materials is an important technique for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds by additive manufacturing methods. Scaffold manufacturing is commonly achieved by one of the following extrusion-based techniques: fused deposition modelling (FDM), 3D-fiber deposition (3DF), and bioextrusion. FDM needs the input material to be strictly in the form of a filament, whereas 3DF and bioextrusion can be used to process input material in several forms, such as pellets or powder. This chapter outlines a common workflow for all these methods, going from the material to a scaffold, while highlighting the special requirements of particular methods. A few ways of characterizing the scaffolds are also briefly described.