ObjectiveDe novo missense mutations in the RHOBTB2 gene have been described as causative for developmental and epileptic encephalopathy.MethodsThe clinical phenotype of this disorder includes early-onset epilepsy, severe intellectual disability, postnatal microcephaly, and movement disorder. Three RHOBTB2 patients have been described with acute encephalopathy and febrile epileptic status. All showed severe EEG abnormalities during this episode and abnormal MRI with hemisphere swelling or reduced diffusion in various brain regions.ResultsWe describe the episode of acute encephalopathy after head trauma in a 5-year-old RHOBTB2 patient. At admission, Glasgow coma scale score was E4M4V1. EEG was severely abnormal showing a noncontinuous pattern with slow activity without epileptic activity indicating severe encephalopathy. A second EEG on day 8 was still severely slowed and showed focal delta activity frontotemporal in both hemispheres. Gradually, he recovered, and on day 11, he had regained his normal reactivity, behavior, and mood. Two months after discharge, EEG showed further decrease in slow activity and increase in normal electroencephalographic activity. After discharge, parents noted that he showed more hyperkinetic movements compared to before this period of encephalopathy. Follow-up MRI showed an increment of hippocampal atrophy. In addition, we summarize the clinical characteristics of a second RHOBTB2 patient with increase of focal periventricular atrophy and development of hemiparesis after epileptic status.ConclusionsAcute encephalopathy in RHOBTB2 patients can also be triggered by head trauma.