Acute Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Exercise Tolerance, Muscle Oxygenation, and Cardiovascular Function in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease

C.M.T. van der Avoort*, L.J.C. van Loon, L.B. Verdijk, P.P.C. Poyck, D.T.J. Thijssen, M.T.E. Hopman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Previous studies have used supplements to increase dietary nitrate intake in clinical populations. Little is known about whether effects can also be induced through vegetable consumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of dietary nitrate, through nitrate-rich vegetables (NRV) and beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation, on plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, exercise tolerance, muscle oxygenation, and cardiovascular function in patients with peripheral arterial disease. In a randomized crossover design, 18 patients with peripheral arterial disease (age: 73 +/- 8 years) followed a nitrate intake protocol (similar to 6.5 mmol) through the consumption of NRV, BRJ, and nitrate-depleted BRJ (placebo). Blood samples were taken, blood pressure and arterial stiffness were measured in fasted state and 150 min after intervention. Each intervention was followed by a maximal walking exercise test to determine claudication onset time and peak walking time. Gastrocnemius oxygenation was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Blood samples were taken and blood pressure was measured 10 min after exercise. Mean plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased (nitrate; Time x Intervention interaction; p <.001), with the highest concentrations after BRJ (494 +/- 110 mu mol/L) compared with NRV (202 +/- 89 mu mol/L) and placebo (80 +/- 19 mu mol/L; p <.001). Mean claudication onset time and peak walking time did not differ between NRV (413 +/- 187 s and 745 +/- 220 s, respectively), BRJ (392 +/- 154 s and 746 +/- 176 s), and placebo (403 +/- 176 s and 696 +/- 222 s) (p =.762 and p =.165, respectively). Gastrocnemius oxygenation, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness were not affected by the intervention. NRV and BRJ intake markedly increase plasma nitrate and nitrite, but this does not translate to improved exercise tolerance, muscle oxygenation, and/ or cardiovascular function.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)385-396
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Volume31
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2021

Keywords

  • cardiovascular disease
  • claudication
  • exercise performance
  • functional capacity
  • nitrate-rich vegetables
  • BEETROOT JUICE SUPPLEMENTATION
  • NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY
  • BLOOD-PRESSURE
  • INORGANIC NITRATE
  • PLASMA NITRITE
  • HEART-FAILURE
  • INTENSITY EXERCISE
  • ERGOGENIC AID
  • PERFORMANCE
  • CAPACITY

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