Objective: To examine the effects of a residential community reintegration program on independent living, societal participation, emotional well-being, and quality of life in patients with chronic acquired brain injury and psychosocial problems hampering societal participation. Design: A prospective cohort study with a 3-month waiting list control period and 1-year follow up. Setting: A tertiary rehabilitation center for acquired brain injury. Participants: Patients (N=70) with acquired brain injury (46 men; mean age, 25.1y; mean time postonset, 5.2y; at follow up n=67). Intervention: A structured residential treatment program was offered directed at improving independence in domestic life, work, leisure time, and social interactions. Main Outcome Measures: Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ), Employability Rating Scale, living situation, school, work situation, work hours, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, EuroQOL quality of life scale (2 scales), World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated (WHOQOL-BREF; 5 scales), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Results: There was an overall significant time effect for all outcome measures (multiple analysis of variance T(2)=26.16; F(36,557) 134.9; P=.000). There was no spontaneous recovery during the waiting-list period. The effect sizes for the CIQ, Employability Rating Scale, work hours, and GAF were large (partial eta(2)=0.25, 0.35, 0.22, and 0.72, respectively). The effect sizes were moderate for 7 of the 8 emotional well-being and quality of life (sub)scales (partial eta(2)=0.11-0.20). The WHOQOL-BREF environment subscale showed a small effect size (partial eta(2)=0.05). Living independently rose from 25.4% before treatment to 72.4% after treatment and was still 65.7% at follow up. Conclusions: This study shows that a residential community reintegration program leads to significant and relevant improvements of independent living, societal participation, emotional well-being, and quality of life in patients with chronic acquired brain injury and psychosocial problems hampering societal participation.