The role of cytopathology in malignant lymphoma is largely restricted to primary screening in patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown causes and evaluation of relapse and transformation during follow-up of patients with known and fully classified malignant lymphoma. Few lymphoma diagnoses fully rely on cytology, although breast-implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma is currently the centre of clinical attention. Due to the major attention both in the medical and lay media for the recently substantiated high lymphoma risk in women with breast implants, cytopathology departments now frequently receive seroma fluid aspirates with this specific differential diagnostic consideration. In this review, we discuss clinico-pathological aspects of breast-implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma from a cytological point of view and provide guidelines for the processing of aspirates in daily practice and strategies for diagnostic work-up of seroma fluids.
- breast-implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma
- cytological aspirate
- periprosthetic seroma