Genetic variants of Period 2 (PER2), a circadian clock gene, have been linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, it is still unknown whether these genetic variants interact with the various types of plasma fatty acids. This study investigated whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PER2 locus (rs934945 and rs2304672) interact with various classes of plasma fatty acids to modulate plasma lipid metabolism in 381 participants with MetS in the European LIPGENE study. Interestingly, the rs2304672 SNP interacted with plasma total SFA concentrations to affect fasting plasma TG, TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL-TG), total cholesterol, apoC-II, apoB, and apoB-48 concentrations (P-interaction < 0.001-0.046). Carriers of the minor allele (GC+GG) with the highest SFA concentration (>median) had a higher plasma TG concentration (P = 0.001) and higher TRL-TG (P < 0.001) than the CC genotype. In addition, participants carrying the minor G allele for rs2304672 SNP and with a higher SFA concentration (>median) had higher plasma concentrations of apo C-II (P < 0.001), apo C-III (P = 0.009), and apoB-48 (P = 0.028) compared with the homozygotes for the major allele (CC). In summary, the rs2304672 polymorphism in the PER2 gene locus may influence lipid metabolism by interacting with the plasma total SFA concentration in participants with MetS. The understanding of these gene-nutrient interactions could help to provide a better knowledge of the pathogenesis in MetS.