A nutrient-wide association study for risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Netherlands Cohort Study

Nikos Papadimitriou, David Muller, Piet A. van den Brandt, Milan Geybels, Chirag J. Patel, Marc J. Gunter, David S. Lopez, Timothy J. Key, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Pietro Ferrari, Paolo Vineis, Elisabete Weiderpass, Heiner Boeing, Antonio Agudo, Maria-Jose Sanchez, Kim Overvad, Tilman Kuehn, Renee T. Fortner, Domenico Palli, Isabel DrakeAnders Bjartell, Carmen Santiuste, Bas H. Bueno-de-Mesquita, Vittorio Krogh, Anne Tjonneland, Dorthe Furstrand Lauritzen, Aurelio Barricarte Gurrea, Jose Ramon Quiros, Par Stattin, Antonia Trichopoulou, Georgia Martimianaki, Anna Karakatsani, Elin Thysell, Ingegerd Johansson, Fulvio Ricceri, Rosario Tumino, Nerea Larranaga, Kay Tee Khaw, Elio Riboli, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Konstantinos K. Tsilidis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Purpose The evidence from the literature regarding the association of dietary factors and risk of prostate cancer is inconclusive. Methods A nutrient-wide association study was conducted to systematically and comprehensively evaluate the associations between 92 foods or nutrients and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and education were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for standardized dietary intakes. As in genome-wide association studies, correction for multiple comparisons was applied using the false discovery rate (FDR <5%) method and suggested results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Results A total of 5916 and 3842 incident cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 14 and 20 years in EPIC and NLCS, respectively. None of the dietary factors was associated with the risk of total prostate cancer in EPIC (minimum FDR-corrected P, 0.37). Null associations were also observed by disease stage, grade and fatality, except for positive associations observed for intake of dry cakes/biscuits with low-grade and butter with aggressive prostate cancer, respectively, out of which the intake of dry cakes/biscuits was replicated in the NLCS. Conclusions Our findings provide little support for an association for the majority of the 92 examined dietary factors and risk of prostate cancer. The association of dry cakes/biscuits with low-grade prostate cancer warrants further replication given the scarcity in the literature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2929-2937
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Issue number7
Early online date8 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020


  • Diet
  • Nutrition
  • Epidemiology
  • Cohort study
  • Prostate cancer
  • DIET

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