A novel dual ionization modality source for infrared laser ablation post-ionization mass spectrometry imaging to study fungicide metabolism and transport

Pieter C. Kooijman, Sybille Lamprecht, Marc Lamshoeft, Birte Beine, Bart J. H. T. Verhoeven, Shane R. Ellis, Ron M. A. Heeren*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Web of Science)


We present a novel probe design for ambient laser-based mass spectrometry imaging combining electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in a single probe, compatible with a commercial laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) instrument. Here we describe the probe design considerations and features, as well as an in-house developed data processing routine designed to extract accurate mass spectrometry imaging data from ambient laser ablation post ionization experiments. We characterize the probe performance in both APCI and ESI mode on a selection of compounds and show improved pixel-to-pixel repeatability for LA-APCI as compared to LAESI. We apply the dual ionization probe in APCI mode in a time series experiment to monitor agrochemicals on tomato plants. We investigate the translocation of fungicide isotianil and one of its metabolites, anthranilonitrile, by mass spectrometry imaging over a period of two weeks after application on a leaf surface. LA-APCI-MSI shows translocation of anthranilonitrile from treated leaves towards non-treated leaves. In summary, we demonstrate that LA-APCI imaging is a valuable addition to the ambient mass spectrometry toolbox, with particular advantages for imaging experiments across a variety of compounds.& nbsp; (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Original languageEnglish
Article number116602
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Mass spectrometry
  • Imaging
  • Fungicide
  • Laser ablation
  • APCI source

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