A mock circulation model for cardiovascular device evaluation

S. Schampaert*, K. A. M. A. Pennings, M. J. G. van de Molengraft, N. H. J. Pijls, F. N. van de Vosse, M. C. M. Rutten

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The aim of this study was to develop an integrated mock circulation system that functions in a physiological manner for testing cardiovascular devices under well-controlled circumstances. In contrast to previously reported mock loops, the model includes a systemic, pulmonary, and coronary circulation, an elaborate heart contraction model, and a realistic heart rate control model. The behavior of the presented system was tested in response to changes in left ventricular contractile states, loading conditions, and heart rate. For validation purposes, generated hemodynamic parameters and responses were compared to literature. The model was implemented in a servo-motor driven mock loop, together with a relatively simple lead-lag controller. The pressure and flow signals measured closely mimicked human pressure under both physiological and pathological conditions. In addition, the system's response to changes in preload, afterload, and heart rate indicate a proper implementation of the incorporated feedback mechanisms (frequency and cardiac function control). Therefore, the presented mock circulation allows for generic in vitro testing of cardiovascular devices under well-controlled circumstances.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)687-702
JournalPhysiological Measurement
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2014


  • mock circulation model
  • cardiac function control
  • frequency control
  • lead-lag controller
  • cardiovascular devices

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