A geometry-based model for non-invasive estimation of pressure gradients over iliac artery stenoses

S. G. H. Heinen*, D. A. F. van den Heuvel, J. P. P. M. de Vries, F. N. van de Vosse, T. Delhaas, W. Huberts

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The aim of this study was to develop and verify a model that provides an accurate estimation of the trans lesion hyperemic pressure gradient in iliac artery stenoses in seconds by only using patient-specific geometric properties obtained from 3-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA).

Twenty-one patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD), iliac artery stenoses and an ultrasound based peak systolic velocity ratio between 2.5 and 5.0 underwent 3DRA and intra-arterial pressure measurements under hyperemic conditions. For each lesion, geometric properties were extracted from the 3DRA images using quantitative vascular analysis software. Hyperemic blood flow was estimated based on stenosis geometry using an empirical relation. The geometrical properties and hyperemic flow were used to estimate the pressure gradient by means of the geometry-based model. The predicted pressure gradients were compared with in vivo measured intra-arterial pressure measurements performed under hyperemic conditions.

The developed geometry-based model showed good agreement with the measured hyperemic pressure gradients resulting in a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.86. The mean bias +/- 2SD between the geometry-based model and in vivo measurements was comparable to results found by evaluating the actual computational fluid dynamics model (-1.0 +/- 14.7 mmHg vs -0.9 +/- 12.7 mmHg).

The developed model estimates the trans-lesional pressure gradient in seconds without the need for an additional computational fluid dynamics software package. The results justify further study to assess the potential use of a geometry-based model approach to estimate pressure gradient on non-invasive CTA or MRA, thereby reducing the need for diagnostic angiography in patients suffering from PAD. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-75
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jul 2019


  • Peripheral artery disease
  • Stenosis
  • Diagnostic method
  • Angiography
  • Blood pressure measurement
  • FLOW


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