A First-in-Man Study with 4-Fluoroamphetamine Demonstrates it Produces a Mild Psychedelic State

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Abstract

The phenethylamine 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) is a so-called novel psychoactive substance with a chemical structure resembling that of amphetamine and MDMA. Since 4-FA users report their subjective experience ranges between the effects induced by amphetamine and MDMA, and it is known that both substances can produce an altered state of consciousness, this study tests whether 4-FA induces a psychedelic state. A placebo-controlled two-way crossover study in 12 healthy poly-drug users was conducted to test subjective and behavioral effects of 4-FA. 4-FA concentrations were determined in serum up to 12 hours after administration and a series of questionnaires and the picture concept test were administered between one hour and 11 hours post-administration. Findings showed that 4-FA induced a psychedelic state which was highest one hour after 4-FA administration, at peak 4-FA serum concentrations. The 4-FA-induced psychedelic state decreased over time and was in general associated with the decreasing 4-FA serum concentrations. There was no 4-FA-induced change in creative (flexible) thinking. It is concluded that while the 4-FA-induced psychedelic state is mild in intensity and in between that produced by amphetamine and MDMA as hypothesized, more research is needed to indicate whether 4-FA can change creative thinking.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-235
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Psychoactive Drugs
Volume51
Issue number3
Early online date24 Jan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 May 2019

Keywords

  • 4-FA
  • creative thinking
  • dissociative state
  • psychedelic state serum concentrations
  • PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES NPS
  • PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT
  • D-AMPHETAMINE
  • HUMANS
  • CREATIVITY
  • CONSCIOUSNESS
  • NETHERLANDS
  • EXPERIENCES
  • VOLUNTEERS
  • AYAHUASCA

Cite this

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title = "A First-in-Man Study with 4-Fluoroamphetamine Demonstrates it Produces a Mild Psychedelic State",
abstract = "The phenethylamine 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) is a so-called novel psychoactive substance with a chemical structure resembling that of amphetamine and MDMA. Since 4-FA users report their subjective experience ranges between the effects induced by amphetamine and MDMA, and it is known that both substances can produce an altered state of consciousness, this study tests whether 4-FA induces a psychedelic state. A placebo-controlled two-way crossover study in 12 healthy poly-drug users was conducted to test subjective and behavioral effects of 4-FA. 4-FA concentrations were determined in serum up to 12 hours after administration and a series of questionnaires and the picture concept test were administered between one hour and 11 hours post-administration. Findings showed that 4-FA induced a psychedelic state which was highest one hour after 4-FA administration, at peak 4-FA serum concentrations. The 4-FA-induced psychedelic state decreased over time and was in general associated with the decreasing 4-FA serum concentrations. There was no 4-FA-induced change in creative (flexible) thinking. It is concluded that while the 4-FA-induced psychedelic state is mild in intensity and in between that produced by amphetamine and MDMA as hypothesized, more research is needed to indicate whether 4-FA can change creative thinking.",
keywords = "4-FA, creative thinking, dissociative state, psychedelic state serum concentrations, PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES NPS, PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT, D-AMPHETAMINE, HUMANS, CREATIVITY, CONSCIOUSNESS, NETHERLANDS, EXPERIENCES, VOLUNTEERS, AYAHUASCA",
author = "K.P.C. Kuypers and {De Sousa Fernandes Perna}, E.B. and E.L. Theunissen and Toennes, {S W} and N.L. Mason and N.R.P.W. Hutten and J.G. Ramaekers",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "27",
doi = "10.1080/02791072.2019.1569286",
language = "English",
volume = "51",
pages = "225--235",
journal = "Journal of Psychoactive Drugs",
issn = "0279-1072",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - A First-in-Man Study with 4-Fluoroamphetamine Demonstrates it Produces a Mild Psychedelic State

AU - Kuypers, K.P.C.

AU - De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E.B.

AU - Theunissen, E.L.

AU - Toennes, S W

AU - Mason, N.L.

AU - Hutten, N.R.P.W.

AU - Ramaekers, J.G.

PY - 2019/5/27

Y1 - 2019/5/27

N2 - The phenethylamine 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) is a so-called novel psychoactive substance with a chemical structure resembling that of amphetamine and MDMA. Since 4-FA users report their subjective experience ranges between the effects induced by amphetamine and MDMA, and it is known that both substances can produce an altered state of consciousness, this study tests whether 4-FA induces a psychedelic state. A placebo-controlled two-way crossover study in 12 healthy poly-drug users was conducted to test subjective and behavioral effects of 4-FA. 4-FA concentrations were determined in serum up to 12 hours after administration and a series of questionnaires and the picture concept test were administered between one hour and 11 hours post-administration. Findings showed that 4-FA induced a psychedelic state which was highest one hour after 4-FA administration, at peak 4-FA serum concentrations. The 4-FA-induced psychedelic state decreased over time and was in general associated with the decreasing 4-FA serum concentrations. There was no 4-FA-induced change in creative (flexible) thinking. It is concluded that while the 4-FA-induced psychedelic state is mild in intensity and in between that produced by amphetamine and MDMA as hypothesized, more research is needed to indicate whether 4-FA can change creative thinking.

AB - The phenethylamine 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) is a so-called novel psychoactive substance with a chemical structure resembling that of amphetamine and MDMA. Since 4-FA users report their subjective experience ranges between the effects induced by amphetamine and MDMA, and it is known that both substances can produce an altered state of consciousness, this study tests whether 4-FA induces a psychedelic state. A placebo-controlled two-way crossover study in 12 healthy poly-drug users was conducted to test subjective and behavioral effects of 4-FA. 4-FA concentrations were determined in serum up to 12 hours after administration and a series of questionnaires and the picture concept test were administered between one hour and 11 hours post-administration. Findings showed that 4-FA induced a psychedelic state which was highest one hour after 4-FA administration, at peak 4-FA serum concentrations. The 4-FA-induced psychedelic state decreased over time and was in general associated with the decreasing 4-FA serum concentrations. There was no 4-FA-induced change in creative (flexible) thinking. It is concluded that while the 4-FA-induced psychedelic state is mild in intensity and in between that produced by amphetamine and MDMA as hypothesized, more research is needed to indicate whether 4-FA can change creative thinking.

KW - 4-FA

KW - creative thinking

KW - dissociative state

KW - psychedelic state serum concentrations

KW - PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES NPS

KW - PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT

KW - D-AMPHETAMINE

KW - HUMANS

KW - CREATIVITY

KW - CONSCIOUSNESS

KW - NETHERLANDS

KW - EXPERIENCES

KW - VOLUNTEERS

KW - AYAHUASCA

U2 - 10.1080/02791072.2019.1569286

DO - 10.1080/02791072.2019.1569286

M3 - Article

C2 - 30676284

VL - 51

SP - 225

EP - 235

JO - Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

JF - Journal of Psychoactive Drugs

SN - 0279-1072

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