A Decade of EEG Theta/Beta Ratio Research in ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

Martijn Arns*, C. Keith Conners, Helena C. Kraemer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

286 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Objective: Many EEG studies have reported that ADHD is characterized by elevated Theta/Beta ratio (TBR). In this study we conducted a meta-analysis on the TBR in ADHD. Method: TBR data during Eyes Open from location Cz were analyzed from children/adolescents 6-18 years of age with and without ADHD. Results: Nine studies were identified with a total of 1253 children/adolescents with and 517 without ADHD. The grand-mean effect size (ES) for the 6-13 year-olds was 0.75 and for the 6-18 year-olds was 0.62. However the test for heterogeneity remained significant; therefore these ESs are misleading and considered an overestimation. Post-hoc analysis found a decreasing difference in TBR across years, explained by an increasing TBR for the non-ADHD groups. Conclusion: Excessive TBR cannot be considered a reliable diagnostic measure of ADHD, however a substantial sub-group of ADHD patients do deviate on this measure and TBR has prognostic value in this sub-group, warranting its use as a prognostic measure rather than a diagnostic measure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)374-383
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Attention Disorders
Volume17
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • EEG
  • QEEG
  • theta
  • beta
  • Theta/Beta ratio
  • neurofeedback
  • DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
  • ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
  • QUANTITATIVE EEG
  • BEHAVIORAL-PROBLEMS
  • CHILDREN
  • SLEEP
  • BOYS
  • AGE
  • ASSOCIATION
  • VALIDATION

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