A dark field illumination probe linked to Raman spectroscopy for non-invasivety determination of ocular biomarkers

Shuo Zhang

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisInternal

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For early and effective diagnosis of eye diseases, acquiring biochemical information in the eye is preferred. However, it is obtained by performing a biopsy of the eye tissue. This poses a risk to the integrity of the eye and cannot be performed on a regular basis. Raman spectrometry is a potential and powerful tool for the non-invasive investigation of biochemical information. The challenge to use it in an ophthalmic application is the essential of a high-power laser direct shining through the eye, which raises safety concerns for potential retinal damage .In this thesis, biomedical applications of Raman spectroscopy are explored for eye disease biomarkers and ocular drug measurements in ex vitro, in vitro and in vivo. To ensure a safety measurement by projecting a laser in the eye, two types of dark-field illumination probes are designed, manufactured and validated in conjunction with confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS) to avoid light damage of the retina. Furthermore, a non-contact dark-field illumination method for the same purpose is proposed and theoretically validated.
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Maastricht University
  • Webers, Carroll, Supervisor
  • Berendschot, Tos, Supervisor
  • Erckens, Roel, Co-Supervisor
Award date7 Jul 2021
Place of PublicationMaastricht
Print ISBNs9789464192612
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Raman spectroscopy
  • ophthalmology
  • non-invasive
  • diagnostic

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