A comprehensive evaluation of treatment accuracy, including end-to-end tests and clinical data, applied to intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy

E. Seravalli*, P. M. A. van Haaren, P. P. van der Toorn, C. W. Hurkmans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

27 Citations (Web of Science)


Background and purpose: A methodology is presented to quantify the uncertainty associated with linear accelerator-based frameless intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) combining end-to-end phantom tests and clinical data. Methods and materials: The following steps of the SRT chain were analysed: planning computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans registration, target volume delineation, CT and cone beam CT (CBCT) registration and intrafraction-patient displacement. The overall accuracy was established with an end-to-end test. The measured uncertainties were combined, deriving the total systematic (Sigma(T)) and random (sigma(T)) error components, to estimate the GTV-PTV margin. Results: The uncertainty in the MR-CT registration was on average 0.40 mm (averaged over AP, CC and LR directions). Rotational variations were smaller than 0.5 degrees in all directions. Interobser variation in GTV delineation was on average 0.29 mm. The uncertainty in the CBCT-CT registration was on average 0.15 mm. Again, rotational variations were smaller than 0.5 degrees in all directions. The systematic and random intrafraction displacement errors were on average 0.55 mm and 0.45 mm, respectively. The systematic and random positional errors from the end-to-end test were on average 0.49 mm and 0.53 mm, respectively. Combining these uncertainties resulted in an average Sigma(T) = 0.9 mm and sigma(T) = 0.7 mm and an average GTV-PTV margin of 2.8 mm. Conclusion: This comprehensive methodology including end-to-end tests enabled a GTV-PTV margin calculation considering all sources of uncertainties. This generic method can also be used for other treatment sites.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-138
JournalRadiotherapy and Oncology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2015


  • Intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy
  • Treatment accuracy
  • End-to-end test
  • Clinical margin

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