The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive and a behavioral treatment for obese binge eaters and obese non-binge eaters. Seventy-four participants, 37 binge eaters and 37 non-binge eaters, were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment conditions taking binge status into account. Both treatments took place in groups and all groups met for 15 weekly sessions of 150 minutes each. Participants in the cognitive treatment learned to change dysfunctional cognitions and participants in the behavior treatment learned a regular eating pattern. The cognitive treatment was more effective in reducing concerns about shape, weight, and eating, as well as restraint and in improving self-esteem. These results were maintained at 6-month follow-up. The behavioral treatment was more effective in reducing weight, but at 6-month follow-up participants in the behavioral treatment regained weight. Binge eating was reduced in both treatments equally effectively, but at 6 months, participants who received cognitive treatment were more abstinent from binge eating.