Hydrophobic uremic toxins accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease, contributing to a highly increased cardiovascular risk. The clearance of these uremic toxins using current hemodialysis techniques is limited due to their hydrophobicity and their high binding a ffi nity to plasma proteins. Adsorber techniques may be an appropriate alternative to increase hydrophobic uremic toxin removal. We developed an extracorporeal, whole- blood bifunctional adsorber particle consisting of a porous, activated charcoal core with a hydrophilic polyvinylpyrrolidone surface coating. The adsorption capacity was quantified using analytical chromatography after perfusion of the particles with an albumin solution or blood, each containing mixtures of hydrophobic uremic toxins. Atime- dependent increase in hydrophobic uremic toxin adsorption was depicted and all toxins showed a high binding a ffi nity to the adsorber particles. Further, the particle showed a su ffi cient hemocompatibility without significant e ff ects on complement component 5a, thrombin- antithrombin III complex, or thrombocyte concentration in blood in vitro, although leukocyte counts were slightly reduced. In conclusion, the bifunctional adsorber particle with cross- linked polyvinylpyrrolidone coating showed a high adsorption capacity without adverse e ff ects on hemocompatibility in vitro. Thus, it may be an interesting candidate for further in vivo studies with the aim to increase the e ffi ciency of conventional dialysis techniques.
- activated charcoal
- uremic toxins
- chronic kidney disease
- FRACTIONATED PLASMA SEPARATION
- CHARCOAL HEMOPERFUSION