A 4-Week Diet Low or High in Advanced Glycation Endproducts Has Limited Impact on Gut Microbial Composition in Abdominally Obese Individuals: The deAGEing Trial

Armand M A Linkens, Niels van Best, Petra M Niessen, Nicole E G Wijckmans, Erica E C de Goei, Jean L J M Scheijen, Martien C J M van Dongen, Christel C J A W van Gool, Willem M de Vos, Alfons J H M Houben, Coen D A Stehouwer, Simone J M P Eussen, John Penders, Casper G Schalkwijk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Web of Science)


Dietary advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), abundantly present in Westernized diets, are linked to negative health outcomes, but their impact on the gut microbiota has not yet been well investigated in humans. We investigated the effects of a 4-week isocaloric and macronutrient-matched diet low or high in AGEs on the gut microbial composition of 70 abdominally obese individuals in a double-blind parallel-design randomized controlled trial (NCT03866343). Additionally, we investigated the cross-sectional associations between the habitual intake of dietary dicarbonyls, reactive precursors to AGEs, and the gut microbial composition, as assessed by 16S rRNA amplicon-based sequencing. Despite a marked percentage difference in AGE intake, we observed no differences in microbial richness and the general community structure. Only the Anaerostipes spp. had a relative abundance >0.5% and showed differential abundance (0.5 versus 1.11%; p = 0.028, after low- or high-AGE diet, respectively). While the habitual intake of dicarbonyls was not associated with microbial richness or a general community structure, the intake of 3-deoxyglucosone was especially associated with an abundance of several genera. Thus, a 4-week diet low or high in AGEs has a limited impact on the gut microbial composition of abdominally obese humans, paralleling its previously observed limited biological consequences. The effects of dietary dicarbonyls on the gut microbiota composition deserve further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5328
Number of pages16
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2022


  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced/administration & dosage
  • Humans
  • Obesity/diet therapy
  • RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
  • 16S rRNA
  • RCT
  • alpha diversity
  • dietary advanced glycation end products
  • MS
  • differential abundance
  • gut microbiota
  • beta diversity
  • dietary dicarbonyls
  • FOOD

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