6-and 8-year-olds' performance evaluations: Do they differ between self and unknown others?

Nesrin Destan*, Manuela A. Spiess, Anique de Bruin, Mariette van Loon, Claudia M. Roebers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The current study investigated kindergarteners and second graders' ability to monitor and evaluate their own and a virtual peer's performance in a paired-associate learning task. Participants provided confidence judgments (CJs) for their own responses and performance-based judgments (judgments provided after receiving feedback on their performance) for both their own and a virtual peer's responses. For the performance-based judgments, children were confronted with their own or the peer's answer as well as the correct answer. Additionally, participants were asked to credit their own and the peer's correct and incorrect answers while facing feedback. Results indicate an age-related progression in metacognitive monitoring skills, with second graders differentiating more strongly in their confidence judgments between correct and incorrect responses compared to kindergarteners. Regarding performance-based judgments, children of both age groups provided higher judgments for correctly compared to incorrectly recognized items as well as for their own responses in comparison to the responses of the unknown child. Similarly, when crediting, participants of both age groups gave more credits for correct recognition than for incorrect recognition and for their own responses than for the peer's responses. The significant interaction between age group and recognition accuracy for the crediting shows that second graders gave more credits for correctly recognized items while kindergarteners gave more credits for incorrect answers than the older children - primarily for their own incorrect answers. In conclusion, the study provides new insights into 6- and 8-year-olds' evaluations of their own and an unknown child's performance in a paired-associate learning task by showing that children of both age groups generally judged and credited responses in their own favor. These results add to our understanding of biases in children's performance evaluations, including metacognitive judgments and judgments provided after receiving feedback.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-336
Number of pages22
JournalMetacognition and Learning
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017


  • Metacognition
  • Monitoring
  • Confidence judgments
  • Crediting
  • Self versus other performance
  • Development

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