3D-Printed Replica and Porcine Explants for Pre-Clinical Optimization of Endoscopic Tumor Treatment by Magnetic Targeting

A.A. Roeth*, I. Garretson, M. Beltz, T. Herbold, M. Schulze-Hagen, S. Quaisser, A. Georgens, D. Reith, I. Slabu, C.D. Klink, U.P. Neumann, B.S. Linke

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Simple Summary: Animal models are often needed in cancer research but some research questions may be answered with other models, e.g., 3D replicas of patient-specific data, as these mirror the anatomy in more detail. We, therefore, developed a simple eight-step process to fabricate a 3D replica from computer tomography (CT) data using solely open access software and described the method in detail. For evaluation, we performed experiments regarding endoscopic tumor treatment with magnetic nanoparticles by magnetic hyperthermia and local drug release. For this, the magnetic nanoparticles need to be accumulated at the tumor site via a magnetic field trap. Using the developed eight-step process, we printed a replica of a locally advanced pancreatic cancer and used it to find the best position for the magnetic field trap. In addition, we described a method to hold these magnetic field traps stably in place. The results are highly important for the development of endoscopic tumor treatment with magnetic nanoparticles as the handling and the stable positioning of the magnetic field trap at the stomach wall in close proximity to the pancreatic tumor could be defined and practiced. Finally, the detailed description of the workflow and use of open access software allows for a wide range of possible uses.Background: Animal models have limitations in cancer research, especially regarding anatomy-specific questions. An example is the exact endoscopic placement of magnetic field traps for the targeting of therapeutic nanoparticles. Three-dimensional-printed human replicas may be used to overcome these pitfalls. Methods: We developed a transparent method to fabricate a patient-specific replica, allowing for a broad scope of application. As an example, we then additively manufactured the relevant organs of a patient with locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We performed experimental design investigations for a magnetic field trap and explored the best fixation methods on an explanted porcine stomach wall. Results: We describe in detail the eight-step development of a 3D replica from CT data. To guide further users in their decisions, a morphologic box was created. Endoscopies were performed on the replica and the resulting magnetic field was investigated. The best fixation method to hold the magnetic field traps stably in place was the fixation of loops at the stomach wall with endoscopic single-use clips. Conclusions: Using only open access software, the developed method may be used for a variety of cancer-related research questions. A detailed description of the workflow allows one to produce a 3D replica for research or training purposes at low costs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5496
Number of pages17
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • 3D printing
  • pancreatic cancer
  • models
  • replica
  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • magnetic hyperthermia
  • endoscopy
  • digital manufacturing


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