De facto many refugees remain warehoused. While under the 1951 Refugee Convention three durable solutions are foreseen, practices of reception of refugees have differed across and within states in the Middle East as citizenship formation and aid-dependency has affected the extent to which these practices are inclusionary. Taking a social exclusion approach, this chapter addresses to what extent citizenship and camp-residency citizenship proves to be a durable solution for Palestinian refugees in Jordan with a closer look at labour market outcomes. This is important to consider as differences in labour market outcomes in turn influences the level of well-being and self-reliance, and thus would help identify protection gaps social protection strategies should address. While Palestinian refugees resulting from the 1948 and 1967 conflict have received citizenship under the 1954 Nationality Law, still a group of Palestinians are characterised by lack of citizenship status. The dual nature of identity as Jordanian citizen and refugee contributes to a dependency model that gives rise to additional complexities that hinder full inclusion in society. Another criterion that should also be taken into consideration includes camp-residency. In the case of Palestinian refugees, a division remains apparent between those that are located inside the historical boundaries of camp areas and those which live in urban areas with those residing in camps being in a more disadvantaged position. This chapter presupposes that one should consider the effect of existing citizenship practices and current place of location as these are structural constraints that affect the refugees’ freedom to enact upon their agency. This in turns would affect their access to the labour market and their labour market outcomes. This contains the annotated do-files (the Masterfile provide insight in the sequencing), a read me file with background information on the dataset , the household survey, and an overview of the variables in the dataset.
- Right to work
- Social exclusion